1. Here is a mid - to late 19th century furnace popular in England and in the United States. Although wood-burning fireplaces are still quite common, even today, other forms of heating begin to appear in this century. I believe the emergence of this artifact revolutionized the heating of multiple rooms, which allowed spatial planning to broaden and be more flexible. Instead of having a fireplace in every room, where over half the heat was lost through the chimney and you had to be standing only a few feet away to experience the heat, that space can be used for other purposes. A furnace was more widely used in residential homes with open floor plan arrangements. These heating sources heated quicker and required less fuel.
Harwood, Architecture and Interior Design from the 19th Century, pg. 21 (1-33)
2. During the nineteenth century a lot of borrowing of ideas was taking place by Europe with China, Japan, India and the Middle East. With the silk trade routes in action the world got a view of an alternate design style and ran with it.
Chinoiserie Corner Cupboard by Chippendale, 1768. Pine, with painted chinoiserie decoration.
Artifact: This artifact shows influences made by the Chinese on the western world referred to as chinoiserie. This influence is expressed clearly in the fine Asian inspired painted garden pattern in green and also the fact that it’s raised off the ground with legs. In earlier times this piece would have sat directly on the ground, but elevating it is a sign of purity. Normally Chinese ornament and decorative forms were found to be useful by furniture makers with the pagoda roof, bamboo framing, and fretwork all being easy on the eye and just as easy to apply on furniture. Chinoiserie type decoration was most often seen in single rooms, usually a female’s bedroom, a dressing room, and occasionally a tea room.
|The Royal Pavilion in Brighton, interior|
Space: The interior of The Royal Pavilion also shows eastern influence. As trade routes from china become more popular, colorful textiles and surface coverings become more widespread. The design ideas of the eastern world are very fantasy like. This space was designed for entertainment and social gatherings to specifically showcase the wealth and worldliness of the hosts.
|The Royal Pavilion is remarkable for its exotic oriental appearance both inside and out (1787-1823)|
Building: The Royal Pavilion, also known as the Brighton Pavilion, shows the eastern influence on western design mimicking the Indo-Saracenic style that was widespread in India. The large dome, recessed archways, spires and focus on symmetry are visible in the Pavilion, these being apparent signs of Indian design with Islamic influence.
|Responsible for the world's largest collection of living plants is Kew Gardens in London, England. (1759)|
Place: Kew Gardens is an ideal example of a western take on Japanese design. With the large pagoda surrounded by a reconstruction of a traditional Japanese garden, man-made water ponds and plant collections, people were able to experience things they wouldn’t normally get to experience. This eastern take on design brought much interest to people of the west. The attention to detail and oneness with nature made these areas idealistic for those who have never been exposed.